The Dons exited the FA Cup at the second-round stage following a 1-0 defeat in their replayed tie with Chesterfield at stadiummk.
Robinson included former Spireite Mark Randall in the starting XI for the clash at MK1, while George Baldock, Daniel Powell, Danny Green and Benik Afobe were also recalled.
Armand Gnanduillet, who scored in the original fixture, had the ball in the back of the net on six minutes courtesy of a smart header but the goal was disallowed for offside.
The Dons responded with Green seeing a long-range shot deflect just past the post and Afobe bringing a good save from Tommy Lee after a powerful run - these chances came either side of an Eoin Doyle header which whistled inches wide.
Randall and Gnanduillet fired off target in the space of 60 seconds as both sides continued to look dangerous as the clocked ticked past the midway point of the first half.
Kyle McFadzean was in the right place at the right time to help clear Sam Clucas’ teasing cross on 23 minutes while, at the other end, Afobe sent a shot in the side-netting from a tight angle.
After nice build-up play including Bowditch and Powell, Green arrowed a 20-yard drive just inches over Lee’s crossbar as the men from MK1 looked to try and take a bit more control of the game.
But Chesterfield still carried a threat going forward and Doyle flashed an effort not too far over the top under pressure from Jordan Spence on the counter attack with 36 minutes gone.
Doyle had a major hand in Paul Cook’s men going ahead on 43 minutes, playing in Roberts to cleverly dink an effort past Martin into the bottom right-hand corner from 12 yards.
The visitors started the second period on the front-foot too with Gnanduillet bringing a save out of David Martin at his near post after initially receiving on the left apex of the 18-yard box.
Possessing great quality, Green whipped in a dangerous right-wing delivery on 50 minutes which Bowditch headed just wide at the back post.
At the other end, Gnanduillet was presented with a good opportunity to make it 2-0 but he headed over when well placed from Clucas’ right-wing cross.
Following the introduction of Ben Reeves at half-time, Robinson called upon Will Grigg and Samir Carruthers on the hour mark as the Dons looked for a way back into the match.
Martin once again saved from Gnanduillet midway through the second half before Bowditch stung the palms of Lee from a free-kick with 12 minutes remaining.
A quickly-taken corner from Reeves set up Carruthers, who saw a close-range shot well blocked by a Chesterfield defender as the Dons pushed forward for an equaliser, but their pressure didn’t produce a goal and they bowed out of the competition.
MK Dons: Martin; Baldock, McFadzean, Spence, Lewington (c); Potter, Randall (Reeves 46); Green (Carruthers 60), Bowditch, Powell (Grigg 60); Afobe.
Subs: McLoughlin, Hodson, Flanagan, Alli.
Bookings: Bowditch, Reeves, Carruthers.
Attendance: 8,040 (1,164 Chesterfield fans)